53.Robotics and Automation by John G. Webster (Editor) PDF

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Thus, the mean, quartile, and decile intensities can be derived easily from H(p), as can the standard deviation of the intensities. Histogram equalization is an important process for enhancing the contrast of an image. It is based on an intensity-mapping function derived by a simple linear rescaling of H(p). The intensity histogram of the image derived by applying the 670 MACHINE VISION FOR ROBOTICS AND INSPECTION mapping function H(p)/mn to the image from which H(p) was derived is very nearly flat.

I, j) > 1] 0 otherwise Count White Neighbors c(i, j) ⇐ #[a(i, j) = 1] In this instance, #(Z) is the number of times that the logical variable Z is true. Notice that ͕c(i, j)͖ is a gray-scale image. Connectivity Detector. Consider the following pattern: 1 0 1 1 X 1 1 0 1 If X ϭ 1, then all of the 1’s are 8-connected. Alternatively, if X ϭ 0, then they are not connected. In this sense, the point marked X is critical for connectivity and is therefore assigned the value 1 in the output image. This is also the case in the following examples: c(i, j) ⇐ NOT[a(i, j)] AND c(i, j) ⇐ a(i, j) · b(i, j) OR c(i, j) a(i, j) + b(i, j) Exclusive OR c(i, j) ⇐ a(i, j) ⊕ b(i, j) 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 X 1 0 X 0 1 X 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 However, those points marked X below are not critical for connectivity, since setting X ϭ 0 rather than 1 has no effect on the 8-connectivity of the 1’s.

Although robots are used in processes other than these three, a careful task analysis reveals that many of them consist of a series of the two previously mentioned task elements. There is only a minor difference in the overall task objectives, such as in heavy-load lifting or painting. These three processes are widely used because the tasks performed are suitable for a robot and because developing task-dependent robots dedicated to a specific task is too costly, resulting in increased employment of general-purpose robots.

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53.Robotics and Automation by John G. Webster (Editor)


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